Monday, June 6, 2016

Event Blog #3

*Note: Unfortunately, my phone broke after visiting this museum, and my photos of visiting were lost. I understand that I may lose points for this, but I still would like to talk about my experience anyway, as it was very cool. All pictures presented are from the Center's website*

For my final event, I visited the Monterey Bay Sanctuary Exploration Center, located near the Santa Cruz wharf. It is a free museum with the aim of educating the public on marine conversation in the Monterey Bay Area. The center makes use of a number of artistic sculpture pieces, film, and multimedia installations in order to do this.

First, I went into a small theater-like room and watched a film on sea otter conversation in the bay. Though we didn't really talk about it in this class, the medium of film has a long history of being intertwined with scientific education. I grew up watching David Attenborough documentaries, and the semi-recent documentary Planet Earth makes use of amazing camera work and editing in order to educate the public on the beauty and wonder of the natural world. At the center, film is used as a means to bring awareness to the plight of the sea otter. In this way science and art work together as a form of environmental activism (similar to the bicycle/green energy exhibit at the MAH, which I attended last month).


My favorite part of the center was the large, life-sized kelp forest installation, where sculpted kelp, sea lions, and other sea creatures make the visitor feel as though they are walking in a kelp forest. Sculpted star fish, anemones, and other bottom-dwelling creatures at the rocky bases of the kelp are accompanied by buttons that, when pressed, prompt an audio recording that gives information regarding that particular species. By making the visitor feel as though they are in the kelp forest, surrounded by its amazing biodiversity, the installation fosters a connection between the audience and the otherwise often inaccessible world under the ocean. As someone who lives in the Monterey Bay area, it moved me to feel closer to the biodiversity in my own metaphorical "backyard." This then ties back into conversation, causing the public to feel invested and attached to the threatened natural ecosystem of the Monterey Bay. It was a very, very cool way to use art as a means to foster environmental activism.

Overall, I was glad I visited this center. I'd always seen it walking around near the beach, but had never ventured inside. Overall, it was another reminder of the way that science and the arts can work in a harmonious synchrony to bring about positive social change.

Event Blog #2

On Friday May 6, I attended Santa Cruz's monthly First Friday art walk. Among the many activities available at a variety of museums, galleries, and shops, the Santa Cruz Museum of Art History offers free admission and an exhibition of some kind each month on first Friday. This month's theme dealt with bicycling, and incorporated information regarding physics and environmental science.

Myself, with one of the enthusiastic employees at the MAH
One of the space-like landscapes projected onto the
wall of the room, with my friend in profile.

There was an exhibit where one could ride a stationary bicycle, powering a blender that made a smoothie with the ingredients of one's choice. It was certainly interesting as a display of the possible energy that we might be able to harness from bicycling, a form of "green" transportation that gives off no emissions, but what really struck me was that the display was also presented as an act of performance art. The people volunteering to ride the stationary bike were not without an audience, as groups of people happily huddled around and observed. The presentation of such technological displays as a form of performance art has the capacity, I think, to bring together the arts and sciences in a way that may be beneficial in unexpected ways (in this case, as a way to bring awareness to more environmentally friendly modes of harnessing energy).

In addition to the bicycle exhibition, my friends and I made sure to check out the other areas of a museum. An interesting collaboration featured the projecting of a collection of images, many of them space-related or inspired, onto the walls of a dark room, as well as onto an installation of styrofoam and paper in the middle of the room. The nature of the exhibition allowed visitors to view their profiles in these space landscapes, effectively becoming part of the art (and, in a way, traveling to space themselves). Space seems to be a fruitful well of inspiration for abstract artists, due to its array of surreal, unearthly phenomena.

Finally, my friends and I checked out the gallery on the history of Santa Cruz which, though not very much related to science (with the exception of a bit on hallucinogenic drug use in the town), was still very cool.

A neat costume originally worn by a street performer in Santa Cruz.

Sunday, May 29, 2016

Week 9

Like so many of the topics we have covered in this class, space and the arts are in conversation with each other in a way that differs largely depending on the direction of information transfer. Space travel and research has influenced works of art. For example, Ray Bradbury's short story, "All Summer in a Day" presents a future where humans have colonized Venus, a planet constantly beleaguered by rain. Numerous other TV shows, books, short stories, and art works have made use of the space theme as a way to mediate our collective fascination (and, at times, fear) of space (Interstellar is a recent example).

Alternatively, scientists have been utilizing their technology and knowledge in artistic ways. For example, Carl Sagan utilized the work of scientists and artists alike to present scientific knowledge to the public. In a related vein, Neil Degrasse Tyson makes use of stylized animations in the recently rebooted version of Cosmos. Similarly, many scientists have been working with artists in zero-gravity to both test the effects of space flight on the human body as well as use the experience of weightlessness as inspiration for artistic endeavors (Forde).

I'm a student at UCSC. Recently, the Santa Cruz Museum of Art and History held an event entitled "Cosmos," featuring astrophysicists, artists, magicians, and spiritualists presenting their particular perspectives on space.


Bradbury, Ray. "All Summer in a Day."
Forde, Kathleen. "Dancing on the Ceiling: Art & Zero Gravity." Web.
Sagan, Carl. "The Pale Blue Dot." Video.
"3rd Friday: The Cosmos." Santa Cruz MAH.
Vesna, Victoria. "Week 9: Space and Art." UCLA. Lecture. Web.

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Week 8

     The relationship of art to nanotechnology is two-fold. On the one hand, science fiction authors and artists have created an astounding volume of work speculating on the role nanotechnology may one day play in our lives (oftentimes these depictions are negative, reflecting perhaps a collective public fear of the technology). This representation of nanotechnology in the media is what Gimzewski and Vesna refer to as the "nanomeme."

The concept of evil nanobots with the capacity to kill humans has come up again and again in science fiction.
On the other hand, nanotechnology itself can be used to create art. For example, Nanp-scape, an art installation by Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau that allows users to "touch" nanoparticles (Art.base). Additionally, IBM has used nanotechnology to create the "world's smallest animation," where individual atoms were manipulated to create a video entitled 'A Boy and his Atom' (Anthony).

Ultimately, nanotechnology isn't itself inherently positive or negative, but rather exists as a tool in a collective global context. As Jim Gimzewski points out, nanoparticles are added to food products in ways that may or may not be harmful, and that we have current little understanding of. That being said, nanotechnology does have astounding medical applications, and may be instrumental in new forms of cancer treatment (Conger). Even in the arts there is a schism of sorts, with some artists using nanotechnology to speculate on disastrous or dystopian futures, and others using nanotechnology itself in order to create art.

A bucky ball surrounding the earth - a reflection of the way that, for the better or not, nanotechnology has taken the world by storm.
Laguna Design.

Anthony, Sebastian. "IBM creates world’s smallest movie with a handful of precisely placed atoms."
     Extreme Tech. 1 May 2013. Web.
"Art in the Age of Nanotechnology." Art.base. 11 March 2010. Web.
Conger, Krista. "Small wonder: How nanotechnology could detect and treat cancer." Stanford.
     17 May 2016.
Gimzewski, Jim. "Nanotech for Artists." 21 May 2012. DESMA 9. UCLA. Web.
Gimzewski, Jim and Vesna, Victoria. "The Nanomeme Syndrome: Blurring of fact & fiction in the
     construction of a new science."

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Week 7

     The confluence of neuroscience and the arts has a particular interest to me as someone with mental illness. The visual arts are able to represent the internal experiences of the mind in a way that is otherwise difficult to communicate. For as much as Frazetto and Anker speak on the commercialization of psychoactive drugs, the cartoon facsimile for depression in a popular Abilify commercial does a disturbingly good job of representing the experience of living with depression.

Depression, represented as a being extraneous to the sufferer, rather than as an intrinsic part of them.

     The rise of a "neuroculture," however, comes with its challenges. The language of endorphins and seretonins has made everyone an expert on neuroscience, and I am exhausted by people suggesting I exercise as a way to "release endorphins," as a treatment for my anxiety and depression, as if it were so simple. That said, the collective obsession with the way that chemicals act on the brain has produced many evocative art pieces. The rise of drug culture and LSD in the 60s coincided with an outpouring of artistic effort on the part of artists in order to replicate the experience of mind-altering drugs (Vesna).

The art of Bryan Sanders, an artist who completes self portraits while on a variety of different drugs.
An art piece representing the rhizome, a concept in Deleuzian philosophy.
Interestingly, it resembles a neural network.
     In a tenuous relationship to neuroscience (which, as Mark Cohen conveys, is concerned with an empirical observation-based understanding of the brain's mechanistic workings) is psychoanalysis. Carl Jung speaks of the ahistorical modern man, the breakdown of religion in the West, the delineation between consciousness and unconsciousness, and the work of Freud (he also claims that art predicts shifts in the collective consciousness). He stresses the importance of looking internally rather than externally. While much of Jung's work is interesting at the least, I take issue with this transcendentalist view of human progress, and his brand of psychoanalysis becomes, in its own way, another kind of religion, translating human behavior into its own mystic set of symbols and interpretations. As Deleuze writes, "In truth, Freud sees nothing and understands nothing." The world is a landscape of multiplicities, and to ascribe any sort of unifying consciousness/unconsciousness dichotomy is to diminish its beauty and complexity. From a Deleuzian standpoint, art is neither representative nor referential, but instead self-expressive and self-evident, an affirmation of one's existence as a being of nature. Art as an act of one's neurological capabilities. As someone who is tired of all my actions being read as representative of my mental issues, I appreciate this view of art.


Cohen, Mark. "Neuroscience." 12 May 2012. Web.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Fľix Guattari. Anti-oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. London: Continuum, 2003. Print.
Frazetto, Giovanni and Anker, Suzanne. "Neuroculture." Nature. Vol. 10. 2009. 815-821.
Jung, Carl. "The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man." 1928.
Vesna, Victoria. "Neuroscience." UCLA. 2016. Web.

Sunday, May 8, 2016

Week 6

     While this week's lecture was concerned with relatively new biotechnologies, humans have been modifying nature for aesthetic purposes for hundreds years. During the 1600s, tulips became immensely popular in Holland, spurring botanists to create increasingly ornate varieties (ironically, the most prized variety of tulip, 'broken' tulips, were the result of a mosaic virus) (Raven).

An illustration of "broken" tulips.
     In another example of the public's relationship to art and biotechnology, Christopher Kelty makes reference to the outsourcing of the life sciences to the general public, allowing average citizens to carry out science in their homes. FoldIt is one such project, a video game that asks users to fold proteins into different configurations, reflecting amino acid folding rules. The game has allowed scientists to access possible protein structures more quickly than an algorithm would be able to, and has applications in medicine (FoldIt).

An example of a structure that can be created in FoldIt
     While many artists have learned how to use biotechnology in order to create art, many scientists have utilzied their specialized knowledge to artistic effect as well. In 2015, a contest was held in which scientists created art using bacterial and yeast cultures on agar plates. The living cultures were utilized as a medium by scientists, raising questions about whether or not life ought to be used as an art object. 

The winner of the Agar Art Contest. American Society for Microbiology/Mehmet Berkmen and Maria Penil from Massachusetts
     Ellen Levy addresses issues discerning nature from culture in the era of biotechnology. In my biochemistry lab, we inserted the GFP gene into a culture of e. coli, causing them to glow green. Why does this seem innocuous, but we raise an outcry in the case of Alba, a rabbit subject to a similar process? Is it because rabbits are more "like us?" Is it because such a process is "unnecessary?" The public reaction to these art works reflect a hierarchy of priorities, where mammals are more important than fruit flies, transgenic experiments for medical advancement more important than aesthetics. A milieu of hypocrisy and confusion cloud the field, and public opinion is increasingly swaying against genetic modification in general, despite the fact that humans have been playing with the genetics of crops for thousands of years.
     Many take concern with biotechnology-based art because it uses life arbitrarily, reflecting perhaps a deeper criticism of the arts as a non-pragmatic endeavour. While I have yet to muddle through my stance on this complex issue, I leave you with some images I took of a hawkmoth through a dissecting microscope.

"FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science." Foldit. Web.

Levy, Ellen K. "Defining Life: Artists Challenge Conventional Classifications." (2007).Kelty, Christopher M. "Outlaw, hackers, victorian amateurs: diagnosing public participation in the  
     life sciences
 today." Jcom 9.1 (2010): 1-8.
Palermo, Elizabeth. "Microbe Masterpieces: Scientists Create Cool Art from Bacteria." Livescience.
     22 October 2015. Web.

Raven, Sarah. "The History of the Tulip." Sarah Raven. 25 October 2014. Web.

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Event Blog 1

A mural outside the museum.
A taxidermied red-tailed hawk.

    For my first event, I visited the Norris Center at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The Norris Center is an on-campus natural history museum. It represents the meeting of the arts and sciences in multiple ways, the most obvious of these being the large collection of taxidermied animal specimens on display. As somebody who prepares taxidermy bird specimens myself, it is most certainly an art form, requiring precision, dexterity, and a creative eye for the aesthetic presentation of a dead animal in a lifelike way. Scientists can then make use of taxidermy specimens in order to easily study animal morphology. In fact, new species have been discovered and named by scientists searching through drawers of taxidermy specimens.


     Outside of the center, an easel accompanied by post-it notes allows visitors to post "nature notes," accounts of natural history happenings that they've observed around campus. Many of these notes are accompanied by small sketches and illustrations, reflecting the meeting point of scientific observation and artistic representation in order to serve and illuminate said observations.

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     As much as the idea of "two cultures" of the arts and sciences at odds with each other is clearly visible in other facets of the university campus, the Norris Center represents a peaceful integration of the two (perhaps the beginnings of a burgeoning third culture?). Here artistic practice and creativity inform and illuminate scientific practice, creating displays that are legible to individuals of all backgrounds and allowing scientific information (that is often quite inaccessible, jargon heavy, and complicated)  to be easily accessed by the general public. Even though this museum is at UCSC, I highly recommend that my classmates check it out if any of you are ever in the area.

Myself (left) and one of the student curators of the museum (right), with a stuffed boar's head in the background.

Saturday, April 23, 2016

Week 4

As mentioned in this week's lectures, the medical sciences and the arts have been in conversation for hundreds of years, from anatomical illustrations to x-rays (Vesna). On a certain level, many medical procedures carry with them a certain aura of the artistic. There is something ritualistic and aesthetic about a nurse methodically wiping down your arm with an alcohol wipe prior to drawing your blood.

Silvia Casini writes about the experiential nature of undergoing an MRI, emphasizing the acoustics of the process as separate from the visual imagery of the internal body itself. As someone who underwent a CAT scan in a sedated state (and never got to see the subsequent images taken of my body) my experience with body imaging technology was entirely audio and tactile. From the technician talking to me to the odd, warm metallic sensation one feels after being injected with the dye, it was aesthetic in a wholly non-visual context.

My CAT scan experience was not visual in any sense, but rather audio/tactile

The intersection of medicine, art, and greater social contexts have produced an incredibly interesting body of work. Donald Ingber's work regarding cell structure engages architecture, medicine, human biology, and sculpture in order to work at fundamental questions about our internal microstructure that have medical implications. Eduardo Kac's piece, "Time Capsule," raised questions about data collection in regards to one's own memories and body that have only become more relevant in an age when everybody carries a smartphone capable of both identifying their location as well as storing large amounts of data regarding their own personal life.

Donald Ingber's ability to physically model/sculpt possible cell architectures has transformed our understanding of cell structure.

I am personally interested in the ways in which art and medical technology can work to improve quality of life. Diane Gromala's virtual reality work, in which she uses VR environments combined with other methods in order to combat chronic pain, is especially compelling. As somebody who identifies as nonbinary and am close friends with many other individuals in the transgender community, there are a number of medical procedures that engage with the performativity of gender expression and alter the appearances of individuals in ways that affect them positively. The concept of gender expression as performative rather than innate opens up a wide array of medical possibilities for creating certain gender affects in individuals. These procedures greatly improve the quality of life of these individuals, and in this way the merging of the medical and the aesthetic has profound implication for well-being.

Medical technology has made it possible for transgender and non gender-conforming individuals to have surgery in order to improve their quality of life.
Casini, Silvia. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as Mirror and Portrait: MRI Configurations
     between Science and the Arts." Configurations 19.1 (2011): 73-99. Web.
Gromala, Diane. "Curative Powers of Wet, Raw Beauty." TEDxAmericanRiviera. 2011. Web.
Ingber, Donald E. "The Architecture of Life." Scientific American. January 1998.
Kac, Eduardo. "Time Capsule." Web. 23 April 2016.
Vesna, Victoria. "" UCLA. Online.

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Week 3

     The rise of industrialization in the West posed a threat to authenticity and originality, both in general and eventually extending to the art world. The advent of the factory system ushered in an economic era characterized by warehouses of identically dressed employees carrying out identical menial tasks.
  Eventually, many of these tasks were automated, and anxieties about increasing reliance on technology and the loss of one's individuality amid the factory system culminated in the "robot." I, Robot presents a world of robots identical in appearance (Proyas). Their homogeny is unsettling. The one "good" robot, Sonny, is less threatening because he is uniquely positioned, free from the obligation to follow Asimov's "three laws." Efforts have been made to construct robots that are capable of mimicking human emotion, a movement to make the concept of a humanoid robot less threatening, more "like us" (Hanson).


Sonny's being separated from other robots makes us feel more comfortable about him.
     Many of these anxieties about new technologies carried over into art. Walter Benjamin expressed concern over the loss of authenticity (and "aura") that accompanies mass reproduction of art (Walter). As Douglas Davis pointed out 30 years later, we are still obsessed with authenticity, and the advent of the internet has provided innumerable opportunities for new forms of art (Davis). Digital art forms have not subsumed traditional art, but rather have risen alongside and, often times, in conversation with them.
      In a merging of the "robot" with other forms of digital art, webcomic author Jeph Jacques tackles the possibility of a world with sentient robots in Questionable Content. The treatment of artificially intelligent robotic individuals is treated as a social issue, on par with gender discrimination or racism (Jacques). In this way, robots become a vehicle for the concerns of our time, where issues of social justice have risen to the forefront via social media.
     Though initially a proxy for collective fears about the loss of individuality amid a burgeoning new world of technology, the robot has transformed alongside us, becoming a way to critique human rights issues. In the same way, technology's growth has only created new mediums for art, rather than threatening it.

Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Illuminations. New
     York: Schocken Books, 1969.
 Davis, Douglas. "The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction (An Evolving Thesis: 1991  
     1995)." Leonardo 28.5 (1995): 381. Web.
Hanson, David (2009, February). "Robots that 'show'
Jacques, Jeph. Questionable Content. 2003-2016.
I, Robot. Dir. Alex Proyas. Perf. Will Smith and Bridget Moynahan. 20th Century Fox, 2004. DVD. 

Sunday, April 10, 2016

Week 2

     The way that mathematics and the arts influence each other is conversational. Much of "classic" art would not be possible without mathematics. Marc Frantz's lesson on vanishing points reads like a geometry textbook, accompanied by diagrams outlining various angles and viewpoints. Without the advent of perspective in the arts, many of art history's most famous works would not exist (Frantz 3).

A figure from Frantz's lesson, outlining one-point perspective.

Raphael's School of Athens would not have been possible without the principles of perspective.
     Aside from the visual arts, mathematics have also influenced literature. In his work Flatlands, Edwin A. Abbott describes a world based in two-dimensional geometry in order to illuminate the plight of women and the poor in Victorian society (Abbott 1). That mathematics have the capacity to critique social ills runs counter to the popular notion of mathematics as an objective, passionless field.

     The dialogue between the arts and mathematics runs opposite as well, with mathematics used to analyse an already-existing work of art. The discovery that Jackson Pollock's paintings employ fractal dimensions, particularly ones that have been shown to be aesthetically pleasing to humans, offers another level of complexity to a seminal body of work (Ouellette).

Jackson Pollock's Number 14, a painting that employs fractal dimensions

     In a beautiful example of the meeting of math, science, and the arts, Margaret and Christine Wertheim have spearheaded a project where they, along with volunteers, crochet life-sized coral reefs in order to raise awareness of climate change. Their project is made possible by the fact that coral reefs have a geometry (hyperbolic geometry) that can only be modeled by crocheting. If it were not for the intersection of geometry, biology, and the arts, there would not be such a striking opportunity to address issues of global environmental change (Wertheim).


One of the Wertheims' coral reefs

Ultimately, mathematics are both a tool in the arsenal of artists and writers, as well as an inextricable component of naure. Art capturing the aesthetics of nature must necessarily pass through the lens of mathematics. As talked about in this week's lecture, the golden ratio is found in numerous works of art and architecture (i.e. the Parthenon) as well as in the natural world (Vensa). This displays how arbitrary the separation between math, science, and the arts is. They're all based in similar or identical processes, perhaps with different methodologies, but ultimately utilizing the same tools. There is a beauty in that. A testament to the universality of matter, the geometry in a coral reef, or the evolutionary biological tendencies in an abstract painting.


Abbott, Edwin Abbott, Valerie M. Smith, and John Allen. Paulos. Flatland: A Romance of
     Many Dimensions. 1884. Web.
Frantz, Marc, and Annalisa Crannell. Viewpoints: Mathematical Perspective and Fractal
     Geometry in Art
. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2011. Print. 
Ouellette, Jennifer. "Pollock's Fractals." Discover Magazine. 01 Nov. 2001. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.
Vensa, Victoria. "" UCLA. Online.
Wertheim, Margaret. (2009, February). "The Beautiful Math of


Sunday, April 3, 2016

Week 1 Blog Post

          "Two cultures" puts a name to a disconnect that has troubles me as a university student both studying biology and with an interest in the humanities. While C.P. Snow was instrumental in constructing a formal analysis of these two cultures, it is interesting that his work was situated in a context of class struggle. He states in The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, "...the gap between the industrialised countries and the rest is widening every day. On the world scale this is the gap between the rich and the poor" (Snow 43-44). As a poor non-white person studying science, contextualizing the conflict between these two cultures within issues of economic justice is necessary.
     Victoria Vesna's article, "Toward a Third Culture: Being In Between" outlines attempts and issues with creating a "third culture" bridging the gap between the two cultures. While Vesna rightfully critiques Deleuze and Guattari for making use of scientific language in a literal sense that is often incorrect when examined under a rigorous lens  (Vesna, 124), I think we must ask, too, what philosophy can do for science. A Thousand Plateaus broaches the topic of evolutionary biology in novel ways that I believe are useful to the field.
     While Kevin Kelly uses "nerdism" as an example a third culture in the modern world, I argue that the "nerdism" still idolizes science and scoffs at the humanities, though it depends on them (Kelly). I see evidence of the third culture in visual arts. Consider the recreation of "Starry Night" on a petri dish, Ernst Haeckel's scientific illustriations, or the sculpting of trees into works of art.

by Melanie Sullivan, of Missouri

Ernst Haeckel - Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 37: Siphonophorae

      As a minor in science education, I am concerned that the public is largely ignorant of science. I was troubled, however, that the symposium held at the New York Academy of the Sciences focused on this, rather than also highlighting the two cultures of C.P. Snow. It seems odd that his lecture was co-opted to enlighten of a different issue (Williams). I preferred Ken Robinson's talk, where fostering creativity is presented as a way to create students that are prepared for the a dynamic world (Robinson).
     I am excited about the ways in which the humanities both borrow from and contribute to the sciences. I am tired of the animosity between the two cultures, and hope this class will foster a "third" culture. 

Tree/Chair Sculpture, by Pooktre


Kelly, Kevin. "The Third Culture." Science. Vol. 279 (1998), Issue 5353, pp. 992-993.
Robinson, Ken. "Changing Education Paradigms." 2010. Web.
Snow, C.P. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Vesna, Victoria. "Toward a Third Culture, Being in between." Leonardo, Vol. 34, No.2 (2001), pp
Williams, Christopher M. "A Dangerous Divide: Two Cultures in the 20th century." The New York     Academy of the Sciences. 2009. Web.